Hosting WordPress Application on an EC2 Instance – AWS

In this post, we will deploy WordPress Application on an EC2 Amazon Linux AMI t2.micro instance following below steps:

Step 1: Set up Amazon EC2 instance following set-up-amazon-ec2-instance.

Step 2: Launch an EC2 instance following ec2-launch-linux-instance.

Step 3: As creating a wordpress application is not a part of this post, I already created one and zipped it as wordpress-app.zip which we will securely copy from local machine to an EC2 instance home directory (/home/ec2-user) using ec2-user as follows:

scp -i /Users/ArpitAggarwal/arpitaggarwal-key-pair.pem /Users/ArpitAggarwal/wordpress-app.zip ec2-user@ec2-54-218-30-7.us-west-2.compute.amazonaws.com:/home/ec2-user

arpitaggarwal-key-pair.pem refers to private key file.
ec2-54-218-30-7.us-west-2.compute.amazonaws.com refers to Public DNS name of EC2 instance.

Step 4: Export wordpress-app database, as follows:

cd /applications/MAMP/library/bin
./mysqldump -u root -p**** wordpress > /Users/ArpitAggarwal/export-wordpress-data.sql

/applications/MAMP/library/bin refers to MAMP local database store.
./mysqldump referes to command to get mysqldump.

Step 5: Copy export-wordpress-data.sql we created from local machine directory to EC2 instance home (/home/ec2-user) directory:

scp -i /Users/ArpitAggarwal/arpitaggarwal-key-pair.pem /Users/ArpitAggarwal/export-wordpress-data.sql ec2-user@ec2-54-218-30-7.us-west-2.compute.amazonaws.com:/home/ec2-user

Step 6: Login to your EC2 instance with private key file and Public DNS name using ssh:

ssh -i /Users/ArpitAggarwal/arpitaggarwal-key-pair.pem ec2-user@ec2-54-218-30-7.us-west-2.compute.amazonaws.com

Step 7: Change collation of your database by executing following commands in /home/ec2-user after login to an EC2 instance:

sed -i 's/utf8mb4/utf8/g' export-wordpress-data.sql
sed -i 's/utf8_unicode_ci/utf8_general_ci/g' export-wordpress-data.sql
sed -i 's/utf8_unicode_520_ci/utf8_general_ci/g' export-wordpress-data.sql

Step 8: Set up Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) stack on an EC2 CentOS 6 instance and set the processes to run automatically when the server boots, executing below commands:

sudo yum install httpd
sudo yum install mysql-server
sudo yum install php php-mysql
sudo service mysqld start
sudo chkconfig httpd on
sudo chkconfig mysqld on

Step 9: Set a root MySQL password same as you have provided in your wordpess-app, executing below command and choosing specific option for all the prompt:

sudo /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation

Step 10: Login to MySQL database on an EC2 instance and create DATABASE same as you have provided in your wordpess-app, for me it’s wordpress:

mysql -u root -p****
mysql> CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS wordpress;

Step 11: Import export-wordpress-data.sql to newly created database, as follows:

mysql -uroot -p**** wordpress < export-wordpress-data.sql

Step 12: Inflate wordpress-app.zip, Copy all the files to /var/www/html directory and create .htaccess file inside the same directory:

unzip wordpress-app.zip
sudo cp -R wordpress-app/* /var/www/html
cd /var/www/html
sudo touch .htaccess

Replace the content of .htaccess file with below:

# BEGIN WordPress
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
  RewriteEngine On
  RewriteBase /
  RewriteRule ^index\.php$ - [L]
  RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
  RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
  RewriteRule . /index.php [L]
</IfModule>
# END WordPress

Step 13: Edit httpd.conf placed in /etc/httpd/conf to set value of AllowOverride directive to All for the /var/www/html directory, as below:

<Directory "/var/www/html">
  Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
  AllowOverride All
  Order allow,deny
  Allow from all
</Directory>

Step 13: Restart apache to reflect all of the changes we did:

sudo service httpd restart

Now, access the wordpress-app from your browser using Public DNS name or Public IP of your EC2 instance as: http://ec2-54-218-30-7.us-west-2.compute.amazonaws.com/

Need to move WordPress site to a new Host?

It can be easily done by updating the option_value, post_content and guid of the application directly in the MySQL database executing below scripts:

UPDATE wp_options SET option_value = 'http://new-host/' WHERE option_name = 'home';
UPDATE wp_options SET option_value = 'http://new-host/' WHERE option_name = 'siteurl';
UPDATE wp_posts SET post_content = REPLACE(post_content,'http://old-host/','http://new-host/');
UPDATE wp_posts SET guid = REPLACE(guid,'http://old-host/','http://new-host/');
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Deploying Web Application on EC2 Instance- AWS

In this post, we will deploy spring web application on EC2 Amazon Linux AMI t2.micro instance following below steps:

Step 1: Set up Amazon EC2 instance following set-up-amazon-ec2-instance.

Step 2: Launch an EC2 instance following ec2-launch-linux-instance.

Step 3: Upload .war file from local machine directory to EC2 user home (/home/ec2-user) directory using secure copy as follows:

scp -i /Users/ArpitAggarwal/arpitaggarwal-key-pair.pem /Users/ArpitAggarwal/hello-spring/target/hello-spring.war ec2-user@ec2-54-218-30-7.us-west-2.compute.amazonaws.com:/home/ec2-user

arpitaggarwal-key-pair.pem refers to private key file.
ec2-user@ec2-54-218-30-7.us-west-2.compute.amazonaws.com refers to public dns name of EC2 instance.

Step 4: Connect to your EC2 instance using your private key file and public dns name as follows:

ssh -i /Users/ArpitAggarwal/arpitaggarwal-key-pair.pem ec2-user@ec2-54-218-30-7.us-west-2.compute.amazonaws.com

Step 5: Install Tomcat7 on EC2 instance as a root user:

[ec2-user@ip-10-0-0-28 ~]$ sudo su root
[ec2-user@ip-10-0-0-28 ~]$ yum install tomcat7

Step 6: Copy .war file from ec2-user home directory to webapps folder of tomcat, as follows:

[root@ip-10-0-0-28 ec2-user]# cp hello-spring.war /usr/share/tomcat7/webapps/

Step 7: Edit the JAVA_HOME in /etc/tomcat7/tomcat7.conf to point to JDK 7, replacing

# Where your java installation lives
JAVA_HOME="/usr/lib/jvm/jre"

to

# Where your java installation lives
JAVA_HOME="/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.7.0-openjdk-1.7.0.91.x86_64"

Step 8: Start tomcat as follows:

[root@ip-10-0-0-28 ec2-user]# start tomcat7

Step 9: As tomcat is running on port 8080, we have to allow 8080 port from security group. To do that, from your instance, find out the security group associated and edit the security group adding another Type as Custom TCP Rule, Protocol as TCP, Port Range as 8080 and Source as Anywhere.

Now, access the web application from your browser using public dns name of your ec2 instance as:
http://ec2-54-218-30-7.us-west-2.compute.amazonaws.com:8080/hello-spring/

The complete source code of spring web application is hosted on github.

Creating Identity and Access Management (IAM) User – AWS

In this post we will create an Identity and Access Management (IAM) User with administrative permissions for AWS and then we will access AWS using a special URL with the credentials of the newly created IAM user. Steps are as follows:

Create the Administrators group

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the IAM console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/iam/.
  2. In the navigation pane, click Groups, and then click Create New Group.
  3. In the Group Name box, type Administrators , and then click Next Step.
  4. In the list of policies, select the check box next to the AdministratorAccess policy.
  5. Click Next Step, and then click Create Group.

Your new group called “Administrators” is listed under Group Name.

Create an IAM user

  1. In the navigation pane, click Users, and then click Create New Users.
  2. In box 1, type a user name. Clear the check box next to Generate an access key for each user. Then click Create.

Add the user to the Administrators group

  1. In the navigation pane, click Groups.
  2. In the Groups section, click Add User to Groups.
  3. Select the check box next to the Administrators group, then click Add Users to Groups from Group Actions dropdown.
  4. Select the check box next to the user name, then click Add Users.

Create a password for the user

  1. In the navigation pane, click Users, select the user and click Manage Password from User Actions dropdown.
  2. Select Assign a custom password. Then type a password in the Password and Confirm Password boxes, then click Apply.

Is IAM User Created?

  1. Sign out of the AWS console, then use the following URL, https://your_aws_account_id.signin.aws.amazon.com/console/
    where your_aws_account_id is your AWS account number.
  2. Enter the IAM user name and password that you just created. When you’re signed in, the navigation bar displays “your_user_name @ your_aws_account_id”.

Want to know your AWS Account Number?

Sign in as a root user to your AWS Account at following url: https://console.aws.amazon.com/billing/home?#/account.